Reasoning

4.2.6

Inductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning is a process of synthesis beginning with specific information and moving toward probable conclusions.

          Inductive reasoning is a process of synthesis beginning with particulars (specific information) and moving toward probable more broad conclusions. The conclusions arrived at may not be true.

 

Example: All the bunnies I’ve seen have short tails; therefore, all bunnies must have short tails.

Analogy Reasoning

Analogy Reasoning relies on using an analogy to compare similar things while basing an outcome on one or the other not necessarily on evidence.

          Analogy reasoning relies on using an analogy as the way of comparing two similar things while basing an outcome/decision on one or the other not necessarily on evidence. Analogical reasoning helps us make sense of the world around us.

Example: Our sun has a planet with life on it therefore similar stars have planets with lfie on them.

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning starts with a general premise and then uses analysis to arrive at certain conclusions.

          Deductive reasoning starts with a general premise and then uses analysis to arrive at certain conclusions.

Example: Sources of air pollution cause holes in the ozone. By including cars in the class of sources of air pollution, we can conclude cars are the cause of holes in the ozone.

Casual Reasoning

Casual Reasoning shows the relationship of things based on the cause and effects of it.

          Casual reasoning shows the relationship of things based on the cause and effects of it. Assumes nothing occurs by chance and that for everything there is a cause.

 

Example: Drunk drivers can cause a car accident, but alcohol does not have to be present for an accident to occur.

Review Questions

1) Analogy reasoning may not consider what when comparing two similar things?

2) Inductive reasoning moves toward probable conclusions based on what?